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Curricular Unit: Musical Analysis III
Code: LCM007
Cientific area: Musical Sciences

Learning Outcomes

The aim of this curricular unit is to make students consolidate and complete their understanding of the fundamental principles of tonal language and how tonal harmony changed during Romanticism. The necessary knowledge to analyze the fugue in the style of J. S. Bach and an understanding of the basic principles of counterpoint will also be acquired. Develop the analysis of orchestral scores.


> Further study of the use of chromatic elements in tonal harmony;

> Study of the various types of modulations;

> The fugue technique: real and tonal answer; exposition structure; episodes and recapitulation; Stretto and double fugue;

> Four voices writing rules (continued);

> Musical forms (continued): the rondó-sonata, innovative aspects of the sonata form in Beethoven and the “dialogue” between the soloist and the orchestra in the Concerto.

Teaching Methodologies

The curricular unit consists of fourteen one and a half hour-long sessions. A list of repertory will be previously sent to students. Students, in each session, analyze one or two works (or parts of works): only one work when they advance in the theoretical learning of the syllabus, two works when they practice the application of these principles in the analysis of the scores.


Adler, Samuel (2002). The Study of Orchestration. Nova Iorque: W. W. Norton & Company

Aldwell, Edward and Schachter, Carl (2003). Harmony and Voice-Leading (3ª ed). Belmont, CA: Schirmer

Bochmann, Christopher (2003). A Linguagem Harmónica do Tonalismo. Lisboa: Juventude Musical Portuguesa

Bochmann, Christopher (2006). A Linguagem Harmónica do Tonalismo. Análises e Exercícios. Lisboa: Juventude Musical Portuguesa

Butterworth, Anna (1999). Harmony in Practice. London: Associated Board

Caplin, William (1998). Classical Form: A Theory of Formal Functions for the Instrumental Music of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. Nova Iorque: Oxford University Press

Clendinning, Jane Piper and West Marvin, Elisabeth (2011). The Musician’s Guide to Theory and Analysis, 2nd ed. New York: W. W. Norton

Cook, Nicholas (1994). A Guide to Musical Analysis, 2ª ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Dunsby, Jonathan and Whittall, Arnold (1987). Music Analysis in Theory and Practice. London: Faber

Hepokoski, James and Darcy, Warren (2011) Elements of Sonata Theory: Norms, Types and Deformations in the Late Eighteenth-Century Sonata. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Ijzerman, Job (2018). Harmony, counterpoint, partimento – A new method inspired by old masters. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Rosen, Charles (1988). Sonata Forms. Nova Iorque: W. W. Norton & Company

Rosen, Charles (1998). The Classical Style – Haydn, Mozart Beethoven. Nova Iorque: W. W. Norton & Company

Schoenberg, Arnold (1967). Fundamentals of Musical Composition, ed. Gerald Strang and Leonard Stein. London: Faber and Faber

Teaching Staff
Emanuel Frazão