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Curricular Unit: Piano Reduction IV
Code: LFM016
Cientific Area: Musical Training

Learning Outcomes

> Piano reduction unit aims to develop reading skills and inner hearing ability of the score and its piano performance. Piano reduction requires the knowledge of how to demonstrate the score text on the piano, i.e. the ability to arrange and adapt. The realization of handwritten piano reduction and score analysis are additional supporting skills for score-reading.

> Knowledge of transpositions in “E” and “Es” and rare transpositions such as: “G”, “H”, “Des”, “As”, “Fis”, playing on piano the scores which include these instruments.

> Knowledge of various transposing instruments and playing them on piano, for example: “B” and “A”, “Es” and “F”, “A” and “H” with non-transposing instruments; or “B – F – A”; “A – D – E”; “B – Es – F”; “B – F – D” with non-transposing instruments.

> Piano sight-reading of instruments introduced to the orchestra by R. Wagner.


Preparation of one movement of the symphony or other work for a symphony orchestra, which include transposing instruments studied throughout the year. Realize detailed analysis of the score; Preparation of a piece that includes a set of groups of instruments (ex.: strings and woodwind instruments); Sight-reading of orchestra excerpts, which includes the connections between transposing instruments and several clefs studied over the semesters (ex.: B + F + C-clefs, A + E + C-clefs, among others).

Examples of works for study during the semester:

Dvorak: Symphony n.º 9 “From the New World” (I-III), Bruckner: Symphonies n.º 2 (I-III), n.º 3 (I, II), n.º 4 (I, II), n.º 5 (I-III), n.º 6 (II, III), n.º 7 (I-III), n.º 8 (I, II) or other works of equivalent difficulty.

Teaching Methodologies

The study material presented in the class is consolidated through independent work. Control of learning is accomplished through weekly presentation of homework that includes individual preparation of extracts and selected scores on the piano, and the realization of handwritten piano reductions.


Anosov, N. P., (1963) Citirea partiturilor simfonice, Bucuresti: Ed. Muzicală

Bőlsche, E., (1952) Schule des Partiturspiels, Band 1, Leipzig: Edition Peters

Chulaki, M. (1972) Instruments of the Symphony Orchestra, Moscow: Muzika.

Eben, P. – Burghauser, J., (1990) Čtení a hra partitur, 2 Ed., Praha: SNKLHU

Hagel, R., (1938) Die Lehre von Partiturspiel, Potsdam: Athenaion

Leschetizky, Th., (1941) Anleitung zum Partiturlesen, Wien: Wiener Philharmonischer Verlag

Mikirtumov, Y. (2013) Redução para piano: três especificidades, Évora: Universidade de Évora.

Piston, W., (1978) Orchestration. London: Victor Gollancz Ltd

Reuter, F. (1951) Praktisches Partiturspielen, Halle – Saale: Mitteldeutscher Verlag

Riemann, H., (1902) Anleitung zum Partiturspiel, Leipzig: Max Hesse´s Verlag

Rimsky – Korsakov, N.A., (1946) Os princípios de orquestração. Leningrado: Muzgiz

Taranov, G., (1939) Curso de leitura de partituras, Moscovo: Iskusstvo

Wolf, О., (1976) Crestomatia de leitura de partituras, 2 Ed., Leningrado: Muzika

Teaching Staff
Yan Mikirtumov (regent)