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Curricular Unit: Musical Analysis I
Code: LCM001
Cientific area: Musical Sciences

Learning outcomes

This curricular unit aims to provide students with the knowledge required for the in-depth understanding of the fundamental principles of tonal language. Students should also acquire knowledge that allows them to identify and structurally analyze most of the formal archetypes of Baroque and Classicism.

Upon successful completion of this curricular unit, students should:

> Be able to analyze the harmony in works from the Baroque and Classical periods;

> Be able to use the correct terminology to identify musical forms, chords, tonal functions, cadences and modulations;

> Be able to perform their own analysis of a movement in sonata form or a piece from the studied styles.

Syllabus / First semester

> Fundamental principles of tonal language, such as: chord symbols; chord chaining; harmonic rhythm; 2nd inversion chords and omitted fundamental chords;

> Non-harmonic notes and cadences;

> Voice-leading in four-voices harmony;

> Chromatic chords, such as: secondary dominants and the German, French, Italian and Neapolitan sixths;

> Formal Baroque and Classicism archetypes: simple binary and ternary forms, also rondo and sonata forms.

Teaching methodologies

Each term consists of fourteen one and a half hour-long sessions. A list of repertory will be previously sent to students. Students, in each session, analyze one or two works (or parts of works): only one work when they advance in the theoretical learning of the syllabus, two works when they practice the application of these principles in the analysis of the scores.


Adler, Samuel (2002). The Study of Orchestration. Nova Iorque: W. W. Norton & Company

Aldwell, Edward and Schachter, Carl (2003). Harmony and Voice-Leading (3ª ed). Belmont, CA: Schirmer

Bochmann, Christopher (2003). A Linguagem Harmónica do Tonalismo. Lisboa: Juventude Musical Portuguesa

Bochmann, Christopher (2006). A Linguagem Harmónica do Tonalismo. Análises e Exercícios. Lisboa: Juventude Musical Portuguesa

Butterworth, Anna (1999). Harmony in Practice. London: Associated Board

Caplin, William (1998). Classical Form: A Theory of Formal Functions for the Instrumental Music of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. Nova Iorque: Oxford University Press

Clendinning, Jane Piper and West Marvin, Elisabeth (2011). The Musician’s Guide to Theory and Analysis, 2nd ed. New York: W. W. Norton

Cook, Nicholas (1994). A Guide to Musical Analysis, 2ª ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Dunsby, Jonathan and Whittall, Arnold (1987). Music Analysis in Theory and Practice. London: Faber

Hepokoski, James and Darcy, Warren (2011) Elements of Sonata Theory: Norms, Types and Deformations in the Late Eighteenth-Century Sonata. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Rosen, Charles (1988). Sonata Forms. Nova Iorque: W. W. Norton & Company

Rosen, Charles (1998). The Classical Style – Haydn, Mozart Beethoven. Nova Iorque: W. W. Norton & Company

Schoenberg, Arnold (1967). Fundamentals of Musical Composition, ed. Gerald Strang and Leonard Stein. London: Faber and Faber

Teaching Staff
Emanuel Frazão